Sunday, December 20, 2009
This blog is called UFO technology. Therefore, I can describe the existence of a tachyon field generator. There are a couple of tricky concepts here. Tachyons are defined as particles that travel faster than the speed of light. Most people don't think of space or space-time as any kind of a physical substance; it is, after all, empty space. There are reasons to think of it as a crystal or a fluid with relativistic properties. Frame dragging is a phenomena similar to what happens when you rotate a pencil in molasses; the molasses close to the pencil moves with it. There are galaxies that are very far away from us that appear to be moving faster than the speed of light. This is a frame dragging effect. What I am proposing is similar to an Alcubierre hyper-drive, but does not carry the unreasonable amounts of energy necessary to warp space to a bubble like configuration.
The tachyon field generator (TFG) would be placed at the geometric center of the spaceship. A TFG has the unusual ability to excite space-time and cause it to be tachyonic in nature. Space-time can be described as a crystal, a tesselation using 10 dimensional spheres. When the space of this crystal is excited, it becomes tachyonic. The TFG excites a spherical volume of space-time that is large enough to include the spaceship or FTL rocket. Everything inside of the excited volume of space behaves normally, and the laws of physics work normally inside of the volume. But the volume of space, itself, is subject to the laws of motion within hyperspace. When the rockets or propulsion system is fired up, the exhaust that leaves the spaceship or FTL rocket. That exhaust will exist within tachyonically excited space for some half life. The tachyonically excited space will, after some time, because to decay back to regular space. But while it leaves the FTL spaceship as thrust, it will accelerate the spaceship to FTL velocities. If the tachyon field generator is shut down, the space-time around the spaceship will slowly lose its tachyonic quality. Eventually, this tachyonic quality will dissipate, and the spaceship will be dropped back into normal spacetime with the same momentum it would have had from the thrust under normal non-FTL conditions. The effect of the tachyonically excited space-time around the FTL rocket/space ship is to multiply its velocity by a factor (c'/c)^2. But the volume of the space that encloses the spaceship has to be completely permeated with tachyons before the FTL effect can occur. Any material object that passes through the outer surface of the tachyonic space will negate the FTL effect.
Sunday, November 29, 2009
1. To show that FTL (faster than light) propulsion is possible within the context of General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics.
2. To divorce FTL propulsion from time travel.
3. To introduce a method of FTL propulsion that neither violates causality nor includes time travel in its definition.
4. To connect hyper-drive physics with common sense.
Before I can introduce FTL propulsion, it will be necessary to explain some basic laws of motion. This website is meant to explain hyperdrive physics to the public/layperson using a basic framework of classical mechanics, relativity and quantum mechanics. Since the general public cannot be expected to be familiar with these subjects, everything will be explained at the high school physics level. This will allow a better conceptual understanding of what is happening. If you're already familiar with physics, by all means proceed to the hyper-space experiments; FTL propulsion will be explained after that.
Basics of the Laws of Motion
Velocity, v, can be defined as how fast you are going, and in what direction. On the highway, if a traffic cop pulls behind you, you will look at your speedometer and check your speed. If you’re going north on the freeway, you know your direction; this constitutes a simple velocity check. For example, v=50m/s north.
Conservation of energy is a primary principle of physics. This principle will be observed in hyper-drive physics, as well. In simple terms, it means that energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can change form. It can also be carried away by light or other means. I assert that it can also move between our space-time and hyper-space, under appropriate conditions.
There are two kinds of energy, kinetic energy, K, and potential energy, U. Kinetic energy is algebraically described as, K = ½ mv2. Mass m, will be measured in kilograms (kg). Kinetic and potential energy are measured in joules.
If you lift up a rock, from the ground to a height, d, in front of you, it will have potential energy given as U = mgd, where m is mass, g is the acceleration of gravity and d is the elevation above the ground.
If while you’re holding the rock, initial velocity = 0 m/s, you drop it, all of its potential energy will be converted into kinetic energy. We can write an equation that says
The potential energy used to be mgd, now it goes to zero. The kinetic energy used to be 0, now it has all of the potential energy in the form of kinetic energy.
K = ½ mv2 = U = mgd. Using some algebra, we can say that the velocity just before it hits the ground, is v = sqrt(2gd).
Simple Newtonian gravity has the formula F = GMm/r2. Force is measured in Newtons, N, which have units of Kg-m/s2. M is the mass of the planet, star, galaxy, black hole, etc; m is the mass of the moon or satellite that travels around M. G is the gravitational constant of the universe, G = 6.67x10-11 N (m/Kg)2. Note that F = ma is the universal relationship between force, mass and acceleration.
For a moon that orbits a planet, planet that orbits a start, etc, the force that keeps it in orbit is given by F = mv2/R, m is the mass, v is the tangential velocity and R is the distance between the planet and the star.
Special relativity is based on the limitation that the speed of light, c = 2.998x108m/s, is the fastest possible velocity. Since photons are light, they always travel at the velocity c. Nothing so far has been proven to be faster than light. It was Albert Einstein who noticed that the speed of light always moves at the same speed no matter how fast you, or anything, are moving. I can therefore guarantee that if you observe a photon, no matter where it came from, and no matter how fast you are moving, it will reach you at the speed of light. Photons routinely emit from a single point and travel out in all directions as a wave front; so the direction the photon is moving will not effect how fast it’s going. If you saw the photon, it was moving in all directions, and in whatever direction you are moving in.
The energy of a single photon is E=hf. The Planck constant, h = 6.6x10-34J-s, the units are joule-seconds. Frequency is measured in hertz or cycles per second. Photons can be both particles and waves; which has been puzzling to scientists for centuries. Light behaves like water waves which have a velocity, a frequency and a wavelength; the velocity of a water wave is v = λf, where λ is the wavelength. This is also true for photons, so that c = λf; λ and f can change, but c never changes, not for photons; particularly, not for photons in this space-time.
If you went to a placid lake and threw a rock into the water, it would send out ripples/rings that travel away from the rock-water impact location at the speed of water ripples, whatever that is. The energy in that ripple is stored throughout the ring of the ripple. It should be no surprise that the energy stored in a small angle of ripple, θ, is going to be θ/2pi * energy of the ripple. We would not be surprised that the θ/2pi amount of energy in the wave could, in principle, be converted into some other kind of energy.
Yes, energy is conserved, and can be changed into other forms. But the smallest unit of energy transfer is the photon. That means that, unlike the ripple described above that can have its energy subdivided, a photon cannot. This is where quantum mechanics begins. If the ripple on the pond is now imagined to be a photon, then any attempt to change, convert, capture or measure its energy, will result in either, you find nothing there, or you get lucky; there is a “winner take all” event where you take all of the energy stored in the wave. Not only does the luck winner get all of the energy, but the ½ spin in taken as well. Spin is also a conserved quantity, never created and never destroyed, never misplaced. It has to do with magnetic fields and is only mentioned to emphasize the “winner take all” event of a photon capture.
Photons are the smallest quantities of light. But light behaves as an undulating electro-magnetic field. If you look at light from a laser or an LED on your computer, you are seeing electric fields that oscillate between E0 and –E0 as E0*sin(2pi*f*t); t is the time on your watch; f is the frequency of the photons. LED’s and lasers emit a single frequency of light, the sun and your lamp emit a range of frequencies. Electric fields cause electrons to accelerate. Photons have an oscillating electric field, and will cause some lucky electron to accelerate and oscillate, with an energy E =hf. For an outer shell electron on an atom, this can result in a quantum leap to the next shell, if the photon has enough energy. Typically, if the next shell takes more energy than the photon has, the electron will not accept the energy. If that happens, the photon keeps going until it finds an electron that will accept its energy.
Albert Einstein liked trains, but I’d like to use spaceship. Satellite
What Cosmologists Already Know
Cosmologists have enough knowledge that they are able to count the stars in a galaxy, and determine their mass and how fast they orbit around the center of the galaxy. Even after they have compensated for dust and planets, there is still about ten times too little mass to account for the velocity of stars as they orbit the center of their galaxy. Physicists call this invisible mass, dark matter because it doesn’t put out any light. Dark matter does, however participate in gravity, and contribute enough gravitational mass to make stars orbit as fast as they’re observed to move.
is a little different.
The expansion of the universe is accelerating
Red shift and blue shift
Common Sense Explanations
Let’s treat space-time or standard space-time as if every particle and wave had photons bouncing back and forth, determining the position of everything else.
Introduction to FTL (Faster than Light) Propulsion
FTL propulsion requires a second space-time with a higher speed of light. First step, let’s take the Classical and Relativistic laws of motion, and make a copy. In the copy, every place where c is, change it to c’. We don’t yet know what we’re going to do with the Planck constant h, permittivity of free space ε, permeability of free space μ, nor the gravitational constant G. So change those to h’, ε’, μ’ and G’.
Since E=mc2, and energy that transmit across the boundary from c-space to c’-space is conserved, then we can write E=E’=mc2=m’c’2. When we have to determine how a mass m from c-space will be treated in a c’ space, we will convert it using:
m’/m = (c/c’)2.
Describe a second space-time with a speed of light c’ = 2c.
FTL propulsion requires conservation of energy.
FTL propulsion requires causality. There are people who believe that FTL travel is impossible because FTL = time travel. There are those who believe that time travel is possible and plan to use FTL. In this description of FTL, causality is the rule, and time travel is impossible because it attempts to violate causality.
How does energy transmit across a c’/c barrier.
The new E=mc2 relationship.
What happens to gravity?
What happens to acceleration?
What happens to momentum?
Start with an FTL rocket ship. How fast can I go?
Higher speed of light changes permittivity and permeability.
What happens to electric fields? What happens to magnetic fields?
How does a c’-space-time effect light? What happens to the photon and Planck constant?
Coupling between our space-time and a c’ space-time.
Hypothetical FTL Propulsion system.
We need a way to study a c’ space-time without the benefit of actually having access to a c’ space-time. One of the first things we are going to need is a energy conversion interface.
Figure 1: The Transduction Interface
The transduction interface is a hypothetical membrane which acts as a border between our space-time, with speed of light c, and a second space-time with a speed of light c’. Because a c’-space (time) has never been observed or tested by physicists, we do not know much about it. The idea is to use the physics of our universe as a template. By defining the c’-space as having a speed of light that is faster than in our universe, we want to use typical physics equations, and take the ratios between them to see what must be true in c’-space. In cases where we need to cross into c’-space during the course of a thought experiment, the transduction interface will provide all of the criteria that must be met. If such criteria cannot be met or does not exist or is not defined, then crossing the transduction interface will be forbidden.
Criteria 1: Conservation of Energy is mandatory. The transduction interface cannot be used to create or destroy energy. While this might seem restrictive it will help us when we try to figure out the laws of physics for a hypothetical c’ space (time).
Criteria 2: Causality cannot be violated. Traveling back in time is considered impossible. If FTL tech (faster than light technology) is to be developed, then the metaphorical door to time travel has to be closed. There argument will be presented later.
Mass Translation: How is mass translated between c/c’? Albert Einstein gave us the very famous E = mc2. Admittedly, if you translated any physical object (e.g. a ball, rope, a hand), there is no guarantee or even the expectation that is will not disintegrate. However, the mass content of whatever it becomes can be determined by algebraically as follows. E = mc2 = E’ = m’c’2. From this, we get,
(1) m’/m = (c/c’)2.
Example 1: If c’ = 5c, and m=25Kg, how much will the mass be in c’-space?
Answer: m’ = m(c/c’)2 = 25kg*(1/5)2 = 25kg/25 = 1kg.
The shipping industry will be disappointed to know that you can’t reduce the cost of shipping per pound using a c’-space, because the weight is still measured in our standard space-time. On the bright side, it can travel faster!
Potential energy for gravity: On the earth, the acceleration of gravity is 9.8 meters per second squared, or g = 9.8m/s2. From the Newtonian force equation F = ma, we know that the force of gravity is F = mg. This is what your bathroom scale reads.
Example 2: If we take a rock with a mass of 3kg, its force or weight in Newtons is
F= mg = 3kg*9.8m/s2 = 29.4N.
Potential energy is given by the formula U = mgd, where d is the height.
Example 3: What is the potential energy if we raise the rock up to a height off the ground of d = 10 meters? U = mgd = 29.4N * 10m = 294 joules.
Look at the picture above. Two identical rocks are raised to an identical height. For rock #1, the path all the way to the ground is standard ordinary c-space. For rock#2 there is a region of c’-space that rock#2 would have to fall into and then out of before reaching the ground. Does the existence of a c’- space-time change the potential energy that rock#2 has by virtue of its weight and height? The answer is no. The gravity inside of the c’-space is different. But the rock comes out the other end. If the c’-space could change the potential energy just by being there, it could be used to violate conservation of energy. The argument goes like this. We could use the c’-space to give the rock more energy as it falls through the bottom of the c’-space. What if we had a perfect trampoline that could make anything that falls on it, bounce back to the same height? If we put that perfect trampoline under rock#2, we would know that the conservation of energy had been violated if the rock bounces up to a height higher than the ledge. That is what happens if the c’-space changes the potential energy. For this reason, U1 = U2.
Since we know that our c’-space conserves energy, and we know that energy is conserved when rock# crosses the transduction interface, then we know that U2 = U’2.
Point-of-View Observations of
The biggest challenge to understanding an FTL hyper-drive propulsion system is that we’re not using wormholes or curving space in any way. These methods are awkward and require too much energy. Instead, we are introducing the existence of a second space-time with a speed of light c’ > c. The introduction of a second space-time with speed a speed of light that is larger than our space-time is the only way that an energetically reasonable FTL propulsion system can be contemplated. By using a 2nd space-time FTL propulsion system, wormholes, curvature of space, black holes, naked singularities and vast amounts of energy are all unnecessary. The biggest challenge is the detection of a second space-time, and subsequent development of an interface with it.
Consider two rockets, each with mass m=1000 metric tons = 106kg. In each case, 5kg of fuel will be converted into energy, with 100% efficiency, to be used to accelerate the rocket. The first rocket will travel in regular space, c-space. The second rocket has FTL capability. Its thrust will be transduced into hyperspace which has a speed of light c’ = 100c. Calculate for each case: a) energy content of the fuel burned, b) kinetic energy of the rocket, c) kinetic energy of the final velocity, b) the acceleration in g’s for a fuel burning that lasts 10 seconds.
a) 5kg of rocket fuel is converted into E=mc2 = 5kg*(3x108m/s)2 = 4.5x1017 joules.
b) Kinetic energy of the rocket is KE = ½ mv2=4.5x1017 joules.
c) Final velocity is v2=KE/m=4.5x1017 joules/106kg=45x1010m2/s2. The velocity is v=6.7x105m/s.
d) The velocity v=at, so a = v/t = (6.7x105m/s)/10sec=67000m/s2=6700g’s.
Second rocket, the FTL rocket:
a) Same as the first rocket, E=4.5x1017 joules.
b) Also the same as the first rocket, KE = ½ mv2=4.5x1017 joules.
c) The velocity of v=6.7x105m/s has to be translated into hyperspace. So v’ = v*c’/c = 6.7x105m/s * 100 = 6.7x107m/s.
Friday, September 25, 2009
Thursday, September 24, 2009
Friday, September 11, 2009
Second, we want to work with concepts in String Theory and M-Theory. Atoms are made of protons, neutrons and electrons. Each of those quantum particles, as well as others, can be described as manifestations of a vibrating superstring, like a violin string. String theory states that fundamental quantum particles can be described as 10D open superstrings called fermions. Bosons are closed superstrings, like rubber bands, that implement forces and vibrate in 26 dimensions. Don't worry about the number of dimensions right now. M-theory can be called membrane theory. The idea of membrane theory is that these open ended supstrings, fermions, will want to connect to the surface of a membrane. Membranes can be referred to a p-branes or d-branes; p refers to space with an odd number of dimensions; d refers to a space with an even number of dimensions. Our universe has a three dimensional space so it is referred to as a p3-brane. This p3-brane is represented as the 2D surface of the rubber balloon. Superstrings would stick to its surface and become our quantum particles. Arguably, a balloon as a D2-brane, but we're just trying to clarify these concepts. One could also say that the p3-brane coincides with empty space. The superstrings that stick to it are just the quantum particles that exist in our space.
In the balloon example, the air inside of the balloon will correspond to the Cosmological constant. Albert Einstein proposed this constant as a way to make the universe static. It was later discovered that the universe was expanding, so the universal wasn't necessary. However, that same constant can be used to moderate the expansion or contraction of the universe. By extrapolation, the following is being added. The Cosmolgical pressure is a hyperdimensional superfluid, an aether that exerts pressure against the p3-brane and causes it to expand; the exact mechanism is unknown at this time. The superfluid appears to spontaneously emerge from within the p3-brane. The pressure that it exerts causes the fluid to pass through the p3-brane to the outside of the brane. The difference in pressure will manifest as energy density in that region of space.
The idea of a "particle-space" relationship comes in handy in hyperdim physics. Basically, a particle is subject to the laws of physics and forces within the space that it occupies. In turn, a region of space can be described as a particle within a higher dimensional space.
A particle-space allows us to describe the laws of motion of a local space within a higher dimensional space. For example, in a spaceship with FTL (faster than light) capability, the very space around the spacecraft is artificial and fabricated. The spaceship, as it accelerates, will appear to vanish from our universe. It has slipped into an isolated space of its own. That space acts like a particle within a higher dimensional space, in which the laws of motion allow faster than light travel.
Thursday, September 3, 2009
In the pursuit of a hyper drive technology, General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics are incredibly stubborn to work with. With a “nothing is impossible” attitude and copious amounts of creativity, a simple truth has emerged: If you can’t get through GR barrier, then go around it.
The common, and probably correct, belief in the physics community is that nothing can travel faster than light. If so, then the obvious question would be: why does gravity operate in and around black holes? One’s first instinct is to think that Newtonian gravity must rely upon a force that travels significantly faster than light. But that is wrong. From the simple formula, F=ma, we discover that gravity is more of an acceleration field. Rocks, feathers and photons all fall in a gravity field without consideration of their mass. Hence, gravity is not a force; it is a curvature in space.
If the curvature of space makes everything in it accelerate, then why can’t we curve space the way we want, to create wormholes and warp drives? The unhappy answer lies in the Alcubierre drive. General Relativity states that we are welcome to curve space anyway we like, but the energy cost will require multiples of all of the energy in the universe.
Figure 1: Come back when you have more energy.
We can pretty much rule out attempts to curve space using mass-energy. We know that gravity occurs via the curvature of space. Do we know what space is? Superstring theory and M-theory have deal with n-dimension p/d-branes (short for membranes). As mathematical descriptions, they give us the best insight we have available into what we must do next.
What is our universe?
There are many reasons to believe that our physical universe is a wave front or surface on the edge of a four dimensional Big Bang explosion. To better illustrate this idea, imagine a spherical balloon. The rubber surface is a 2D representation of the universe; this surface can also represent a brane to which the superstrings can attach to give us our observable quantum particles. Our physical universe is a p3-brane.
The internal gas pressure of the balloon is the equivalent of the Cosmological pressure that can be considered a four dimensional gas. The direction of the pressure pushes the brane outwards in a 4th spatial dimension. That 4th spatial dimension is typically referred to as ct; this model explains what is meant by space-time. In this model, the membrane moves through the fourth dimension of time, but does not allow time travel because there is only one p3-brane that changes in time. In fact, it is the flow of the Cosmological 4D gas that causes time to flow at all. If the universe were to contract, the cosmological gas would flow in the other direction, but the universe would not revert to the historic past. The future would continue to unfold the way it does not. The flow of Cosmological gas only governs the rate that time passes. True time travel would require a model more like a movie reel.
The important idea to take from this is that the flow of the 4D cosmological gas through the brane is responsible for the rate at which time flows. The fact that gravitationally relevant objects like planets, stars and black holes warp space is due to the interaction between mass-density, and the continued inflation of the universe. For a cubic volume of space, the cosmological gas has to inflate it. But if there is significant mass-density, the flow of 4D cosmological gas has to account for, process, every unit of mass and energy in order to move it along the time (4D) axis. When a black hole falls behind, it causes the space around it to warp. Inflation of the universe continues today.
For this reason, it may be possible to manipulate the flow of gravity by manipulating the p3-brane in a way that controls the flow of the 4D Cosmological gas through it.
From this model, we can see that the speed of light, c, the gravitational constant of the universe, G and … represent properties of the p3-brane, but the Cosmological constant represents properties outside of the brane.
We can’t really manipulate p-branes until we can prove their existence. The Physics Community has a homework assignment. Create a method, the technology, and the equipment necessary to detect, manipulate and create p3 branes. You have 200 years to do this. Explain how the technology will work…
There is a place for spheres in physics. I am trying to figure out the nature of the p3-brane of which our universe is constructed. I liked Georgina's idea of a potential energy from the fourth temporal dimension pushing the p3-brane forward in time. I believe that the Cosmological constant might serve as a constant pressure that continually inflates our universe.
I believe that the Schwartzchild spheres, while just a mathematical convenience right now, could be imagined to be a 3D slice of a 4D hyper sphere. The idea is that the p3-brane is only one Schwartzchild diameter thick (4D thickness). Think of bubble wrap. The idea is that the Cosmological pressure inflates these spheres from their unseen (off the brane) exposed surface.
The 4D cosmological gas flows through the spheres, from the 4th dimensional past to the 4th dimensional future (no time travel allowed). Some of this flow will be necessary to keep the Schwartzchild sphere inflated. If the sphere to deal with a high energy density, then it comes at the expense of the degree of inflation.
For a black hole, a large number of Schwarchchilde spheres will have their volumes collapsed into singularities by the huge mass-density. Beyond the black hole, the space around the black hole has a much lower mass-energy, but experiences huge gravitational forces. But why?
A 4D Schwartchilde hypersphere has three dimensions of space and 1 dimension of 4th dimensional space along the temporal dimension (ct). Just like bubble wrap, it takes a certain amount of presure (energy) to squeeze one of these spheres. This gives it a potential energy profile that is proportional to its 4th dimensional radius. If a black hole contracts the space around it, and the spheres within it, then the surounding spheres have to stretch to take up that missing space. In doing so, their potential energy profile is distorted. The distortion should cause the potential energy to slope downwards towards the center of the contraction, the black hole. Anything that exists on the p3-brane near the black hole will, of course, experience the slope in the potential energy. In the bubble wrap example, image two halves of a sphere, one half is closer to the black hole hole then the other half. The contraction of space forces the part of the sphere closest to the black hole to make up for the contraction of space by expanding more than the side of the sphere further away from the black hole. Larger volume means less pressure. There will be a continual drop in sphere pressure as you get close to the black hole. That corresponds to a continual drop in potential energy. The gradient of that creates a force pointing to the black hole.
In a nutshell, any creative manipulation of space time, for the purpose of creating wormholes or hyperdrives, will have to get around the Schwartzchilde inflation problem. It might be necessary to deflate the spheres first, bend them around the way you want, and then let the Cosmological constant refill them. In this way, the Cosmological constant may be more fundamental then even conservation of energy.
Hyperspace, in the past
P3-Brane Construction Rules
Cosmological 4D gas inflates spheres to a potential energy V0 and a Radius R0.
The surface of a 4D hypersphere is a 3D space subject to General Relativity.
The sphere’s 3D surface is the ZPE floor. The inside of the 3D surface is negative energy, the outside is positive energy.
Expanded Schwartzchild spheres are called Inflatons.
A particle-space relationship occurs between an n-dimensional object within an m-dimensional space where m > n.
Monday, March 9, 2009
You’re superluminal ellipsoid shield will have to be operating properly to avoid being incinerated when you enter the sun’s corona. You will also have to be traveling at about .05c. When passing into the sun’s corona, some travelers open up a narrow band of visible light to watch the sun as they approach. This joke is old now; but usually, if you have FTL newbie’s along, they will be watching nervously as they rapidly approach the sun. Someone is supposed to scream, “Oh, crap! The computer crashed!!!” or “Why isn’t this stupid shell working!!!” After billions of years of FTL travel, somehow, the joke is still funny.
But it won’t be funny for long if you don’t know the password. When you enter the sun’s corona (or where ever they put the gate), you have to find it and then transmit a password into the superluminal shell. The effect of the intense heat acts like noise at the Planck scale. When you do this correctly, you enter the gate area and emit the password, all while traveling at 15,000 Km/sec along a zone of about 2 km in length. That gives you about 133 milliseconds to either open the gate and enter hyperspace, or get the hell out of there before your ellipsoid shell starts to act funny. You hope that the gate orientation provides a path tangent along the sun’s surface. Sometimes, the gate will rotate, and the exiting end is facing the sun’s core. You have to report this to the Gate Keepers so they can fix it. But if you don’t have the right password and the gate’s exit is oriented towards the sun’s core, here’s what happens.
High thermal energy causes lots of noise on the elliptical shell which can randomize some of the quantum bits, effectively smearing out some of their signalling to the adjacent space-time. This causes the superluminal space-time thickness to narrow to zero. Then, if you haven’t gotten out of the sun by then, you have a choice. The sun’s diameter is 1.4 million kilometers. If you can quickly reconfigure the shell to convert thermal energy into velocity, the temperature is only 6000K at the surface. Towards the center, it’s about a million degrees. Wait a minute, why would they put a jump gate inside of the sun? The greys are looking at each other and saying something about it being a bad neighborhood. I’m not sure I get what they’re saying. One of them just said they call it the Ronald Reagan Solar Gate (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bgbj_WzmR5g).
The aliens are saying that someday, when humanity evolves out of its barbaric, hateful and paranoid disposition, the Gate Keepers will consider changing the solar gate’s name and moving it into an orbit around the sun. They also express great confidence that this will happen before the sun uses up all of its hydrogen fuel and expands into a Red Giant in about 5 billion years (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun#Life_cycle). That gives us plenty of time to practice being nice to each other.
Saturday, March 7, 2009
The superluminal field generator creates a very thin ellipsoidal shell around the space craft. From afar, the shell can glow in various soft colors, which are remarkable to view; other times, the ship will seem to vanish entirely. But the physics that is occurring on the surface of the shell is truly astonishing. The shell acts like a modulated quantum bit hologram that tells the external physical universe that it doesn’t exist. The computer is transmitting information, data bits, that are modulated into quantum bits; these quantum bits are potential energies that vary in time all over the surface of the ellipse; and have a resolution of a Fermi area; if you understand what this means, your jaw will drop. The quantum bits are also updated very quickly, as often as every millionth of a picosecond. These potential energies are disrupting the emergent space time.
Space-time is an emergent property of Schwarzschild spheres that are stacked in 8 dimensional energy-space (which is not any kind of a space-time). The radius of a Schwarzschild sphere is about a Planck length or 10-35 m. In Solid State physics, which describes crystals and metals, there are conduction bands along which electrons and phonons can flow in their own 3 space. These conduction bands are an emergent property of crystals and metals the way space time is an emergent property of stacked Schwarzschild spheres. These spheres themselves contribute to the particle-antiparticle formation and annihilation. In a way, it’s like our universe is a NaCl or GaAs crystal. The Greys (the aliens) mumbled something about universe clusters of different kinds of spheres, but they won’t explain.
Anyway, the changing potential energies at the surface of the ellipse can disrupt the normal behavior of the Schwarzschild spheres (http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/HBASE/electric/dielec.html). Then, two things happen. First, space-time is caused to not exist (http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Solids/band.html#c2). Then, on another layer, the Schwarzschild spheres are forced to exibit superluminal behavior in the following ways. First, the potential energy threshold for particle/antiparticle creation is raised to unreachable levels (particle creation becomes impossible). Second, the speed of light between two sliding surfaces beomes infinite or at least a very high multiple of c. Third, the photons between the two sliding superluminal surfaces undergo a bosonic transformation. Photons, which normally regulate electromagnetism, are forced to behave as translational ballbearings within the superluminal sliding sheets. Consequently, Maxwell’s equations breakdown. The Greys refer to these photons as cyclonic photons because they act like tornado fields of angular momentum. When the elipsoidal shell is stable, and the starship is ready to travel, massive amounts of kinetic energy are dumped into the superluminal field. This energy manifests as increaing rotation of the cyclonic photons. This cyclonic rotation gives your craft a velocity (in the right direction if you did it right) that is independent of the mass enclosed by the superluminal field.
When energy is put into the superluminal field (ellipsoidal shell), the angular momentums are modulated into the field, it starts to push against the regular undamped space-time (say goodbye to half your energy lost as cosmic rays). Since the velocity of light is no longer a constant across this inertial reference frame, like it normally is, then relativity doesn’t operate here. Action/reaction forces still do. The superluminal shell imparts momentum into the undamped space-time; which, in turn, kicks back equal and opposite momentum. But the reaction momentum is going into the superluminal space-time region. KE = ½ mv2 but relativity is inoperative. If your space ship weight 2000 metric tons and you need to cross a light year in one day; then,
- your superluminal velocity is v = c*(365 days/1 day) = 365c = 1.1x1011 m/s.
- Your kinetic energy KE = ½ mv2 = ½ (2x106Kg)(1.1x1011 m/s)2 = 1.21x1028 Joules.
- If you want to reach this speed quickly, within ten minutes, then your power consumption is (1.21x1028 Joules / 600 seconds) = 2x1025 watts or 2x1016 gigawatts.
- Your acceleration is equal to the change in velocity versus change in time which equals (365c/600 seconds) = 1.8x108 m/s2 = 18 million times the acceleration of gravity (potentially causing uncomfortable whiplash).
Congratulations!!! You’re a black hole tidal wave moving very quickly through hyperspace. So, you’re wondering why 18 million g’s doesn’t crush your starship. It’s because these extreme tidal forces are only occurring inside the thickness of the superluminal shell. With respect to the shell, the spaceship and its field generator are at rest. I’m sure your wondering what happens if you hit something like a meteorite or a planet. Well remember, the superluminal shell is preventing regular space-time from manifesting. You effectively pass through objects external to the shell. You are literally travelling in hyperspace.
If we treat the ellipse like a sphere of Radius R = 50 meters and a thickness of 1 meter, then the volume of the shell is 4/3πR3 – 4/3 π(R-1)3 = 31x103 m3 = 31x109 cm3.
· The energy density of the superluminal shell is 1.21x1028 Joules/31x109 cm3 = 3x1017 Joules/cc.
· When you reach your destination (yes, I know how to stop!), you pull energy out of the superluminal field and, in turn, decelerate down to subluminal speeds. When you are down to about 0.00001c (3km/second), you can power down the shell.
You might be wondering what happens if there is a malfunction in the superluminal shell generator that causes it to power down while you’re in hyperspace; or, your computer system crashes and the information flow stops. Well, it won’t be like on Star Trek where you just drop out of warp and float around. The shell will start to decay and regular space-time will notice that something, with mass, is moving 365 times the speed of light. There will be a very big explosion. You will go off like a nuclear warhead with several million megatons of energy. Your explosion will be so big, that space-time will be ripped and damaged for months. The light from your explosion will be visible to the naked eye several light years away (which might explain why you didn’t show up for dinner 3 years ago).
You may have noticed that your energy needs are insanely high; (½ mv2)/(mc2) = ½ (365c/c)2 equals about 67 thousand times your mass worth of anti-matter. Not even the greys have that kind of energy. There is another way.
Thursday, March 5, 2009
The advanced spacefaring rim worlds send forth their starships for trade, exploration, and social interaction. Social interaction is a high priority and is part of their culture. As it turns out, immortality has been achieved by some. It is with pride that immortals say they have known somebody for an aeon or more. A few of these immortals become technical giants in the field of spacefaring technology. With help and cooperation from others, they will build huge space stations that are flying saucer factories (or whatever appearance pleases you). It is in these star or black hole orbiting places that the laws of hyper-dimensional physics are pushed to their limits. The motto of one facility is: All the power of the universe stuffed into a very small space that won’t eat you. In their language, it sounds more terse and poetic.
One of the challenges of building UFOs (starships/fly saucers/spaceship) is getting around the default laws of physics that restrict travel to subluminal (slower than light) speeds. To visit your friend on the other side of the galaxy, you don’t want to have to wait in a starship traveling at .9c to cross a hundred thousand light years. Even for immortals, that is impractical. But even if you could change the speed of light, you don’t want to mess around with the delicate balance of physics in your physical body. If you change the speed of light inside of your body, your particles will change and you will very likely disintegrate. Nobody has ever admitted to making that mistake. So the technical strategy is to extend a field safely around your ship, inside of which, the laws of physics are normal; outside of field, the laws of physics are normal, but at the boundary, lots of interesting stuff happens.
The aliens continue to stand over me while I study the physics of Superstrings and M-theory. I’ll explain in more detail later, but this is what I understand so far. Inside of the spacecraft is a superluminal space-time warp generator. It extends an elliptical field around and someone beyond the ship (about 30 meters beyond the ship). The field has two layers closely space to each other (about an inch separation from each other). On either side of this two layer superluminal field, the Laws of physics are normal. But between the two sheets that make up the field, E = mc2 is blocked. The speed of light as a restriction to FTL travel is no longer operational. This causes all energy entering the field to be converted into velocity, causing the two sheets to slide across each other, superluminally. So, the good news is that I can travel across the galaxy much faster than light. The bad news is that I don’t know how to get it to stop!
Monday, March 2, 2009
Why do we need to know all this stuff about space-time to go FTL (faster than light)? One of the ways to travel faster than light is to use an Alcubierre warp drive. The Mexican physicist, Miguel Alcubierre, worked out the Relativistic details of how to get a spaceship to travel faster than light, inside of warp bubble. Star Trek, the television series, picked up the idea. By expanding space-time behind you, and contracting it in front of you, you will travel, safely within a warp bubble, faster than light speed.
So, you might ask, why don’t we just do that? The answer is: we only know how to warp space using black holes and naked singularities which are not readily available and they can gravitationally suck you inside the event horizon. In addition, you also need exotic particles which are not available. We need to find another way to warp space-time.
Creating micro-verses is a little bit like creating whole universes with Big Bangs; but with much lower energies; and the radius has to be kept constant and stable. The aliens have them as part of their FTL drive system; it’s like an empty balloon in hyperspace that is waiting to be filled with air. This “air” is really the background energy in free space also known as the cosmological constant, G, Einstein’s Field equations. Albert Einstein ones remarked that adding the cosmological constant was the biggest mistake of his career. He thought that the universe was stable because of a balanced cosmological constant. Of course, our universe has been expanding since the Big Bang. Maybe Einstein was also consulting the aliens.
The idea is, when the micro-verse fills energy, it expands, at the speed of light, into a sphere around the spacecraft. An interesting feature about microverses is that they can be rotated around a mysterious dimension called Zeta, ζ. Consider the following riddle. Two objects physically exist, but not to each other; they pass right through each other and never touch. How is this possible? Zeta is the contact angle. The contact angle for everything in the physical universe, accept for Dark matter and Dark energy, is zero degrees. At 90 and 270 degrees Zeta angular separation, two object, two universes, etc., will pass through each. At 180 degrees, some of the physics pick up a minus sign. At other angles, unpleasant things happen. Go rent the Philadelphia Experiment; this movie was inspired by an accident that occurred involving top secret experimentation by the American government with a captured UFO/flying saucer. Moral of the story: don’t stand too close to a flying saucer when they start up their engines. This brings me to another FTL method. By the way, Zeta is actual two orthogonal (perpendicular) angles ζ1 and ζ2.
ω1=∂ζ/∂t, is a Calculus way of saying that ω is the rate of rotation; micro-verses can be rotated at an energy cost of E = Hω. The micro-verse rotation is linear and unlimited. If you have plenty of power, you can tumble your way to Alpha Centuri in 20 minutes. There are some problems with energy loss as cosmic radiation. But this can be minimized with by creating special harmonic patterns on the surface of the tumbling micro-verses resembling “tread”
On a side note, steady travel must be designed into the system using Control Systems techniques. For whatever reason, if the faster than light travel became unstable, unpredictable tumbling could occur. It is even possible to become lost in the past or the future. But if you do, you won’t be able to change anything in the past or get special information in the future. The reason is that there is not material substance, no particles or strings in the past or the future. You would be floating around in the “nothingness”. If the micro-verse bubble powers down while you’re in the “nothingness”, the material substance of you and your space ship will be damped out in the infinite potential barrier. You, your spaceship, and the information associated with your physical existence in space-time will be lost. Don’t turn off your micro-verse fields.
Friday, February 27, 2009
I will try to clearly describe and reference the well established known laws of physics without getting into too much mathematical detail. Then, I will attempt to clearly point out where physicists are getting vague or their theories have weaknesses in them. That is where human physics ends and alien physics begins.
Physics, square one
Physics requires taking measurements. There are spatial measurements in 3D space which can be in feet, meters, millimeters, angstroms, etc; correspondingly, area in square meters, volume in cubic meters, etc. Next, you need a stop watch to measure time. But don’t forget about mass, so you need a scale that can measure pounds or grams. With electric charge, you can measure electric currents. In keeping it simple, everything that physicists can measure comes down to combinations of length, time, mass and charge. If it can’t be measured as some combination of these four things, physicists politely call it metaphysics or philosophy. There exist rude physicists who call it something less polite.
Less well known, but no less important, is “information” which should really be described as “signaling”. …
You, personally, are very well versed in Newtonian physics; but not necessarily its formalism. Look at somebody near you and imagine that you are holding a water balloon or a snowball. The cerebellum is the part of your brain that is now talking to you. It includes targeting programs and performs simple physics calculations.
The Road to Modern Physics
You are made of cells and tissue. Cells and tissue are made of molecules. Molecules are made of atoms. Atoms are made of protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons, neutrons and electrons are among the stable subatomic particles that are not too hard to find in the laboratory; we know they exist. We know that neutrinos exist. Particle physicists build huge swimming pools underground and sometimes find neutrinos there. They will swear up and down that they don’t swim in the pools; but, since the pools are underground where nobody is watching, we can’t be sure.
There are subatomic particles that scientist are pretty sure they should exist, such as gluons, quarks, gravitons and Higgs particles. Of course, even the whole idea of particles is kind of sore subject among physicists. If it’s a particle, it’s a point in space that moves with a definite momentum, (mass times velocity). Velocity is a fancy word for speed that physicists will insist that it’s more important than just “speed”; yeah, if you say so. Anyway, particles are point objects with a well known momentum and position in space. Physicists know exactly where there particles are and how fast they’re going. At least, they’re expected to; which is a sore subject among physicists. You see, Classical physicists know where their particles are and how fast they’re moving. Quantum physicists are mostly sure where they are and how fast they’re moving. Often, you will hear quantum physicists muttering under their breath things like, “Those jerks, Pauli and Bohr! Has anyone seen my particles?” In many physics lectures at universities, physics professors will commonly deride the original quantum physicists and say thing like:
“Yeah, everything was great until DeBroglie came along and said our atoms are like some kind of stupid violin. What kind of idiot turns a nice, easy to find particle into a violin string.”
“Heisenberg was the biggest jerk! He said that you can never be certain both where your particle is and how fast it’s moving. Even if I can find it, it’s moving too fast to catch it.”
Everybody liked Albert Einstein because he came up with Special Relativity. It was easy to understand. Einstein said it didn’t matter how fast you, or the hidden traffic cop, were moving. Light/photons were always faster, and they always traveled at the velocity, c (2.998 x108 meters/sec). It was easy for cops to write speeding tickets to photons, they always traveled at the same speed, the ticket was always the same fine; catching the photon was the hard part.
Einstein pointed out that because light always travels the same speed, peculiar things would happen. Einstein, who drove a Porsche, would speed, all the time! When the hidden traffic cop finally pulled Einstein over, the cop would say strange things. Mr. Einstein, your Porsche looks very short when you drive fast. And, when you threw that bag out of your car window, your hand moved really slowly, like you were moving in slow motion.
“Professor” Einstein would of course tell the cop that he was observing (1) length contraction and (2) time dilation. Then the cop would say he doesn’t like snotty motorists and hand Einstein the speeding ticket. Professor Einstein would reply, “Did I tell you my Porsche gets heavier too, when I drive really fast?” Einstein, muttering to himself, “Darn, I’m out of gas.” Einstein knew that at high speeds close to the speed of light, going faster requires a lot of energy.
That night, when he had to explain to his wife, Mileva, why they had no money for rent because he spent it all on gasoline, the speeding ticket, and Porsche payments, Mileva began to yell at him. It was then that he started thinking about other things like,
E= mc2; how either mass or energy would cause space to curve, and the planets would be attracted to massive objects in a gravity field, that warped space was a gravity field.
Occasionally, fragments of what Mileva was yelling would break through his concentration, fragments like “can’t keep the Porsche”, “Exxon gas Card Company called again”, “Listen to me when I’m talking!” “Yes, dear, I love you.” Then Einstein started to think about,
After Heisenberg permanently lost everyone’s particles and DeBroglie cleverly replaced them with violin strings, hoping nobody would notice, physicists coped by describing everything as particle-strings, hoping that ordinary people like you and me wouldn’t notice. Most people look at big stuff like bills, wallets, and politicians. Biologists use microscopes to look at really tiny things under great magnification. Classical physicists look at how things move; they describe everything as points with location in space and with momentum. Particle physicists look at these points under super intense magnification and are embarrassed to find wavy points! Now how can a point wave?
The other physicists said, “Huh?” Schrödinger explained that particles are just strings. They like to roam freely like wave fronts on a pond when you toss in a rock. They can roam freely if the surrounding potential energy is low. But if the surrounding potential energy is high, they get boxed in. So your particle-waves can now be easily found if you put them in a box like in my picture.
One of the physicists asked, “I don’t see the Classical physicists walking around with particle-waves, they find only particles?”
Schrödinger replied, “If you put your hand inside and reach for the particle-wave, there is a chance that you will miss it. There is also a chance that you will grab the particle-string and there will be a particle in you hand.” The other physicists started calling Schrödinger a nutcase. How can you grab a string and have it turn into a particle? They asked Schrödinger if he got this crazy idea from his cat. Schrödinger replied, “Maybe yes, maybe no; in fact, both!”
Schrödinger explained that particle-waves are actually probability waves. They wave around, but if you try to grab one, there is only a “probability” that you will grab it. It depends how big your hand is. And, if you do grab it, it will be a particle until you let it go. Then, it becomes a probability wave again.
Schrödinger looked both ways and then began to whisper to the other physicists, “Don’t tell the normal people this, they’ll think your crazy; but here’s what I think. The wave-particle spans between two sides of a hidden dimension, an ‘imaginary’ dimension. Yes, the dimensions of your box are in regular 3D space. But, this particle wave also stretches out in an imaginary dimension, as well. The ‘particle’ part moves along the imaginary dimension like a wave on a jump rope; it moves back and forth. When two particle-strings come near each other, if the ‘particle’ parts of the string miss each other, the strings will pass right through one another. But, if the particle parts happen to collide, then you found your particle.”
Tuesday, February 24, 2009
Anyway, Ike was pondering the mathematics of superstrings, with tensors in one hand and wiggling strings in the other. He picked up his magnifying glass and looked very closely at the wiggling superstring. He noticed that there was a tiny electrical outlet on the string. He wondered why would someone put an electrical outlet here? Then, he thought: it’s such a tiny string, there can’t be any useful energy here. So he picked up his volt meter and attempted to measure it. When he put the probes of the volt meter into the socket, the volt meter exploded!!! Ike thought, holy cow, that’s a lot of energy! He picked up another superstring and looked at it with his magnifying glass, and saw another electrical outlet, then another, they all had them. This gave Ike an idea.
Ike went down to the local atom smasher where scientist stubbleys would slam atoms together and watch the sparks. While some complained that these scientists were just closet pyromaniacs, the scientists would insist that their work was important and would be useful in keeping the jockels from eating them. Now ike told them that he found electrical outlets on the superstrings and showed them with his magnifying glass. He told them there was enough energy to power a warp drive and that they should build one immediately. The scientists said they needed to run tests on their atom smasher first; they needed to harness the energy for their experiments. One of the scientists was overheard to have said, “Smash!!! Bang!!! Kablooey!! This is so cool!!!! I love particle physics!!!”
About a week later, Ike and the scientists were standing around the ENGAGE button on the atom smasher. The plug was pulled out of the wall and plugged into a superstring outlet using a Power Transducer device. Ike read a short speech, “For the betterment of stubbley kind and to save us from the hungry jockels. Turn it on!” One of the scientist pressed the ENGAGE button. The atomsmasher began to fire atoms faster and hit harder than any of them had ever seen. The atoms would slam into each other so hard, that space itself started to look bloated and disfigured. The scientists giggled excitedly. Some of them even drew pictures. They watched all day and night while the space bubble became bloated and took on peculiar shapes.
All of the sudden, someone yelled, “Everyone, come outside! Holy cow! Look!!!” There were three flying saucers hovering outside of the atom smasher building. Their high beams were on. One could say that the flying saucers appeared to be annoyed about something. At least that was the conclusion that the scientists reached when one of the flying saucers fired a laser through the building into the Power Transducer device, destroying it. After that, two of the flying saucers flew away in an effort to lower hostilities. The scientists likewise attempted to lower hostilities by running away, screaming, “AAHHH!!!" But Ike stayed because he knew why they were here.
The remaining flying saucer landed, and a door slid open. Out emerged a Space Alien; it said, “qww tkck qwkeekql ekwokgjkf kfgjkfod!!!” Ike stared at it blankly. The creature paused and calmly said, “I’m sorry, I do speak Stubblyish. But Jiminy Cricket!!! What gives you the right to build a bla bla bla to steal our qebkbk energy and waste it with bla bla blab la blab space-time anomalies causing bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla!!! Do you know how much that’s gonna cost us!!! Do you think energy is free? That is the worst Quasi -hyperbolic blab la blab la!! What are you trying to do? Create a hyper-dimensional flatulence bag?” For thirty minutes, Ike had to listen to the alien yelling at him, cursing at him in an alien language and ridiculing his version of mechanical machines that he had no concept of. Then, for the next thirty minutes, he listened while the alien yelled at him about how he can’t just steal warp drive energy, there are treaties and licenses with intergalactic governments and sharing/contributing energy and negative entropy.
Then, the alien paused, and smiled. “Hello my fellow traveler upon the journey of life in the vastness of infinite space and time. I am Achelic’qualitdi diwhe’ Cchuck. You can call me Chuck. Welcome to the Multi-verse Confederacy. I am a representative from the Chartered civilization of Quovou, an alliance of thirteen hundred worlds spanning two hundred galaxies and five space-times.” Then, the alien Chuck paused to let Ike speak.
Ike said, “Hi, I’m Ike. You owe me a volt meter.”
More and more abstract unto the very thoughts of the Infinite Mind, eternal peace and abundant joy, their dance of perfect thoughts; It is in their play that all things are manifest. But as they intermingle, so do they intersect one another, and cast shadows upon the whole of Creation. These shadows are the opposites and contradictions from which the abstracts can exist.
It is these dualities and opposites that add to zero or add to one. As particle and antiparticle will annihilate one another and add to zero; so too, will man and wife come together as one, they will add to one; and so it is for facets of Creation. The paint and palette will complement each other. They come together to create beauty. But Creation is not created until the abstract dualities and opposites begin to dance. They too shall intersect and create the contradictions. And when an abstract that is true for all seasons intermingles with another of a different nature, there emerges the constrained reality and the mystical experience. Both of these forces are part of the whole. But words are but imperfect tools with which to create a conduit to Infinite Mind; see not the scrapes upon the rocks in the babbling brook, but rather bathe in its healing waters, a caring gift from a loving God.
Saturday, February 21, 2009
There are inherent dangers of traveling in outer space including cosmic rays and high velocity debris that can hurt or kill you? I call it the Shroud. It is similar to a force field. It is a mix of technologies that will block light, other electromagnetic radiation, and even high velocity chunks of debris. I will describe the UFO technology that can achieve this.
Do you like floating around in outer space? It gets old after a while. Creating real gravity from gravitons takes too much energy. Spinning your space ship to achieve centripetal forces wastes too much space. I will explain how vertical 1 g gravity can be achieved by utilizing particles call Berberons, which are flip-overs from a neighboring space-time.
When you finally land on another planet, you don’t want some gorilla like alien monster ripping off your door and eating everyone inside. More realistically, many planets that you might land on have high velocity weather patterns that can damage or destroy your ship. I will describe materials that can provide superior tensile strength, and can withstand large temperature extremes without molecular failure.
Did I mention that the power requirements will be staggering? Even fusion power plants, which could be developed now, will not supply the amount of energy you will need to run these systems. Remember, E = mc2; m will be the mass of your starship. Fortunately, there are ways to aggregate large amounts of energy from stars, cosmic rays, and other higher dimensional energy sources.
To explain these technologies, I will be using a combination of Superstring Theory without the Big Bang, single universe restrictions; my own ingenuity; and advice from the Space Aliens, the Grays and others, who have all been enthusiastic in their desire to help accomplish this goal. The Grays, who actually aren’t gray, first visited me when I was about nine years old. There were other visitations, but I will get into that later.
One of the unexpected benefits of pursuing Alien technology was a space-time deconstruct process that pointed the way to Occult (super)natural laws, spirit worlds and hidden dimensions with intelligent life; in some cases, significantly more intelligent than us; the kind that make us like ants, by comparison.