Sunday, December 20, 2009

FTL propulsion drive made simple

This method of hyperdrive/FTL propulsion was inspired by a concept in physics called Frame Dragging. Frame dragging is typically associated with spinning objects.  In trying to figure out what might be necessary to achieve FTL propulsion, the benefit of creating a reference frame around the spaceship or FTL rocket cannot be ignored.  It is true that neither physical objects nor light can travel faster than the speed of light c.  However, no such restriction exists for space itself.  If the center of the spaceship includes a heavy object that is spinning rapidly, this might be sufficient to cause the space-time around the spaceship to follow the spaceship everywhere it goes.  The space ship would always be at rest with respect to the space-time around it; the space-time and the spaceship could be treated as a single object capable of dodging relativistic effects.

This blog is called UFO technology.  Therefore, I can describe the existence of a tachyon field generator.  There are a couple of tricky concepts here.  Tachyons are defined as particles that travel faster than the speed of light.  Most people don't think of space or space-time as any kind of  a physical substance; it is, after all, empty space.  There are reasons to think of it as a crystal or a fluid with relativistic properties.  Frame dragging is a phenomena similar to what happens when you rotate a pencil in molasses; the molasses close to the pencil moves with it.  There are galaxies that are very far away from us that appear to be moving faster than the speed of light.  This is a frame dragging effect.  What I am proposing is similar to an Alcubierre hyper-drive, but does not carry the unreasonable amounts of energy necessary to warp space to a bubble like configuration.

The tachyon field generator (TFG) would be placed at the geometric center of the spaceship.  A TFG has the unusual ability to excite space-time and cause it to be tachyonic in nature.  Space-time can be described as a crystal, a tesselation using 10 dimensional spheres.  When the space of this crystal is excited, it becomes tachyonic.  The TFG excites a spherical volume of space-time that is large enough to include the spaceship or FTL rocket.  Everything inside of the excited volume of space behaves normally, and the laws of physics work normally inside of the volume.  But the volume of space, itself, is subject to the laws of motion within hyperspace.  When the rockets or propulsion system is fired up, the exhaust that leaves the spaceship or FTL rocket.  That exhaust will exist within tachyonically excited space for some half life.  The tachyonically excited space will, after some time, because to decay back to regular space.  But while it leaves the FTL spaceship as thrust, it will accelerate the spaceship to FTL velocities.  If the tachyon field generator is shut down, the space-time around the spaceship will slowly lose its tachyonic quality.  Eventually, this tachyonic quality will dissipate, and the spaceship will be dropped back into normal spacetime with the same momentum it would have had from the thrust under normal non-FTL conditions.  The effect of the tachyonically excited space-time around the FTL rocket/space ship is to multiply its velocity by a factor (c'/c)^2.  But the volume of the space that encloses the spaceship has to be completely permeated with tachyons before the FTL effect can occur.  Any material object that passes through the outer surface of the tachyonic space will negate the FTL effect.

Sunday, November 29, 2009

FTL Propulsion Drive progress

Goals of this hyper-drive website
1. To show that FTL (faster than light) propulsion is possible within the context of General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics.
2. To divorce FTL propulsion from time travel.
3. To introduce a method of FTL propulsion that neither violates causality nor includes time travel in its definition.
4. To connect hyper-drive physics with common sense.

Before I can introduce FTL propulsion, it will be necessary to explain some basic laws of motion.  This website is meant to explain hyperdrive physics to the public/layperson using a basic framework of classical mechanics, relativity and quantum mechanics.  Since the general public cannot be expected to be familiar with these subjects, everything will be explained at the high school physics level.  This will allow a better conceptual understanding of what is happening.  If you're already familiar with physics, by all means proceed to the hyper-space experiments; FTL propulsion will be explained after that.

Basics of the Laws of Motion
Velocity, v, can be defined as how fast you are going, and in what direction. On the highway, if a traffic cop pulls behind you, you will look at your speedometer and check your speed. If you’re going north on the freeway, you know your direction; this constitutes a simple velocity check.  For example, v=50m/s north.

Conservation of energy is a primary principle of physics. This principle will be observed in hyper-drive physics, as well. In simple terms, it means that energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can change form. It can also be carried away by light or other means. I assert that it can also move between our space-time and hyper-space, under appropriate conditions.
There are two kinds of energy, kinetic energy, K, and potential energy, U. Kinetic energy is algebraically described as, K = ½ mv2. Mass m, will be measured in kilograms (kg). Kinetic and potential energy are measured in joules.

If you lift up a rock, from the ground to a height, d, in front of you, it will have potential energy given as U = mgd, where m is mass, g is the acceleration of gravity and d is the elevation above the ground.

Figure 1:

Example 2:

If while you’re holding the rock, initial velocity = 0 m/s, you drop it, all of its potential energy will be converted into kinetic energy. We can write an equation that says

The potential energy used to be mgd, now it goes to zero. The kinetic energy used to be 0, now it has all of the potential energy in the form of kinetic energy.

K = ½ mv2 = U = mgd. Using some algebra, we can say that the velocity just before it hits the ground, is v = sqrt(2gd).

Simple Newtonian gravity has the formula F = GMm/r2. Force is measured in Newtons, N, which have units of Kg-m/s2. M is the mass of the planet, star, galaxy, black hole, etc; m is the mass of the moon or satellite that travels around M. G is the gravitational constant of the universe, G = 6.67x10-11 N (m/Kg)2. Note that F = ma is the universal relationship between force, mass and acceleration.

For a moon that orbits a planet, planet that orbits a start, etc, the force that keeps it in orbit is given by F = mv2/R, m is the mass, v is the tangential velocity and R is the distance between the planet and the star.

Special Relativity

Special relativity is based on the limitation that the speed of light, c = 2.998x108m/s, is the fastest possible velocity. Since photons are light, they always travel at the velocity c. Nothing so far has been proven to be faster than light. It was Albert Einstein who noticed that the speed of light always moves at the same speed no matter how fast you, or anything, are moving. I can therefore guarantee that if you observe a photon, no matter where it came from, and no matter how fast you are moving, it will reach you at the speed of light. Photons routinely emit from a single point and travel out in all directions as a wave front; so the direction the photon is moving will not effect how fast it’s going. If you saw the photon, it was moving in all directions, and in whatever direction you are moving in.

The energy of a single photon is E=hf. The Planck constant, h = 6.6x10-34J-s, the units are joule-seconds. Frequency is measured in hertz or cycles per second. Photons can be both particles and waves; which has been puzzling to scientists for centuries. Light behaves like water waves which have a velocity, a frequency and a wavelength; the velocity of a water wave is v = λf, where λ is the wavelength. This is also true for photons, so that c = λf; λ and f can change, but c never changes, not for photons; particularly, not for photons in this space-time.

If you went to a placid lake and threw a rock into the water, it would send out ripples/rings that travel away from the rock-water impact location at the speed of water ripples, whatever that is. The energy in that ripple is stored throughout the ring of the ripple. It should be no surprise that the energy stored in a small angle of ripple, θ, is going to be θ/2pi * energy of the ripple. We would not be surprised that the θ/2pi amount of energy in the wave could, in principle, be converted into some other kind of energy.

Yes, energy is conserved, and can be changed into other forms. But the smallest unit of energy transfer is the photon. That means that, unlike the ripple described above that can have its energy subdivided, a photon cannot. This is where quantum mechanics begins. If the ripple on the pond is now imagined to be a photon, then any attempt to change, convert, capture or measure its energy, will result in either, you find nothing there, or you get lucky; there is a “winner take all” event where you take all of the energy stored in the wave. Not only does the luck winner get all of the energy, but the ½ spin in taken as well. Spin is also a conserved quantity, never created and never destroyed, never misplaced. It has to do with magnetic fields and is only mentioned to emphasize the “winner take all” event of a photon capture.

Photons are the smallest quantities of light. But light behaves as an undulating electro-magnetic field. If you look at light from a laser or an LED on your computer, you are seeing electric fields that oscillate between E0 and –E0 as E0*sin(2pi*f*t); t is the time on your watch; f is the frequency of the photons. LED’s and lasers emit a single frequency of light, the sun and your lamp emit a range of frequencies. Electric fields cause electrons to accelerate. Photons have an oscillating electric field, and will cause some lucky electron to accelerate and oscillate, with an energy E =hf. For an outer shell electron on an atom, this can result in a quantum leap to the next shell, if the photon has enough energy. Typically, if the next shell takes more energy than the photon has, the electron will not accept the energy. If that happens, the photon keeps going until it finds an electron that will accept its energy.

Special Relativity

Albert Einstein liked trains, but I’d like to use spaceship. Satellite

What Cosmologists Already Know

Dark matter

Cosmologists have enough knowledge that they are able to count the stars in a galaxy, and determine their mass and how fast they orbit around the center of the galaxy. Even after they have compensated for dust and planets, there is still about ten times too little mass to account for the velocity of stars as they orbit the center of their galaxy. Physicists call this invisible mass, dark matter because it doesn’t put out any light. Dark matter does, however participate in gravity, and contribute enough gravitational mass to make stars orbit as fast as they’re observed to move.

Dark Energy

is a little different.

Dark Energy

The expansion of the universe is accelerating

Big Bang

Red shift and blue shift

Common Sense Explanations

Let’s treat space-time or standard space-time as if every particle and wave had photons bouncing back and forth, determining the position of everything else.

Introduction to FTL (Faster than Light) Propulsion

FTL propulsion requires a second space-time with a higher speed of light. First step, let’s take the Classical and Relativistic laws of motion, and make a copy. In the copy, every place where c is, change it to c’. We don’t yet know what we’re going to do with the Planck constant h, permittivity of free space ε, permeability of free space μ, nor the gravitational constant G. So change those to h’, ε’, μ’ and G’.

Since E=mc2, and energy that transmit across the boundary from c-space to c’-space is conserved, then we can write E=E’=mc2=m’c’2. When we have to determine how a mass m from c-space will be treated in a c’ space, we will convert it using:

m’/m = (c/c’)2.

Describe a second space-time with a speed of light c’ = 2c.

FTL propulsion requires conservation of energy.

FTL propulsion requires causality. There are people who believe that FTL travel is impossible because FTL = time travel. There are those who believe that time travel is possible and plan to use FTL. In this description of FTL, causality is the rule, and time travel is impossible because it attempts to violate causality.

How does energy transmit across a c’/c barrier.

The new E=mc2 relationship.

What happens to gravity?

What happens to acceleration?

What happens to momentum?

Start with an FTL rocket ship. How fast can I go?

Higher speed of light changes permittivity and permeability.

What happens to electric fields? What happens to magnetic fields?

How does a c’-space-time effect light? What happens to the photon and Planck constant?

Coupling between our space-time and a c’ space-time.

Hypothetical FTL Propulsion system.


We need a way to study a c’ space-time without the benefit of actually having access to a c’ space-time. One of the first things we are going to need is a energy conversion interface.

Figure 1: The Transduction Interface

Transduction Interface-

The transduction interface is a hypothetical membrane which acts as a border between our space-time, with speed of light c, and a second space-time with a speed of light c’. Because a c’-space (time) has never been observed or tested by physicists, we do not know much about it. The idea is to use the physics of our universe as a template. By defining the c’-space as having a speed of light that is faster than in our universe, we want to use typical physics equations, and take the ratios between them to see what must be true in c’-space. In cases where we need to cross into c’-space during the course of a thought experiment, the transduction interface will provide all of the criteria that must be met. If such criteria cannot be met or does not exist or is not defined, then crossing the transduction interface will be forbidden.

Criteria 1: Conservation of Energy is mandatory. The transduction interface cannot be used to create or destroy energy. While this might seem restrictive it will help us when we try to figure out the laws of physics for a hypothetical c’ space (time).

Criteria 2: Causality cannot be violated. Traveling back in time is considered impossible. If FTL tech (faster than light technology) is to be developed, then the metaphorical door to time travel has to be closed. There argument will be presented later.

Mass Translation: How is mass translated between c/c’? Albert Einstein gave us the very famous E = mc2. Admittedly, if you translated any physical object (e.g. a ball, rope, a hand), there is no guarantee or even the expectation that is will not disintegrate. However, the mass content of whatever it becomes can be determined by algebraically as follows. E = mc2 = E’ = m’c’2. From this, we get,

(1) m’/m = (c/c’)2.

Example 1: If c’ = 5c, and m=25Kg, how much will the mass be in c’-space?

Answer: m’ = m(c/c’)2 = 25kg*(1/5)2 = 25kg/25 = 1kg.

The shipping industry will be disappointed to know that you can’t reduce the cost of shipping per pound using a c’-space, because the weight is still measured in our standard space-time. On the bright side, it can travel faster!

Potential energy for gravity: On the earth, the acceleration of gravity is 9.8 meters per second squared, or g = 9.8m/s2. From the Newtonian force equation F = ma, we know that the force of gravity is F = mg. This is what your bathroom scale reads.

Example 2: If we take a rock with a mass of 3kg, its force or weight in Newtons is

F= mg = 3kg*9.8m/s2 = 29.4N.

Potential energy is given by the formula U = mgd, where d is the height.

Example 3: What is the potential energy if we raise the rock up to a height off the ground of d = 10 meters? U = mgd = 29.4N * 10m = 294 joules.

Look at the picture above. Two identical rocks are raised to an identical height. For rock #1, the path all the way to the ground is standard ordinary c-space. For rock#2 there is a region of c’-space that rock#2 would have to fall into and then out of before reaching the ground. Does the existence of a c’- space-time change the potential energy that rock#2 has by virtue of its weight and height? The answer is no. The gravity inside of the c’-space is different. But the rock comes out the other end. If the c’-space could change the potential energy just by being there, it could be used to violate conservation of energy. The argument goes like this. We could use the c’-space to give the rock more energy as it falls through the bottom of the c’-space. What if we had a perfect trampoline that could make anything that falls on it, bounce back to the same height? If we put that perfect trampoline under rock#2, we would know that the conservation of energy had been violated if the rock bounces up to a height higher than the ledge. That is what happens if the c’-space changes the potential energy. For this reason, U1 = U2.

Since we know that our c’-space conserves energy, and we know that energy is conserved when rock# crosses the transduction interface, then we know that U2 = U’2.

Point-of-View Observations of

Hyper-drive physics

The biggest challenge to understanding an FTL hyper-drive propulsion system is that we’re not using wormholes or curving space in any way. These methods are awkward and require too much energy. Instead, we are introducing the existence of a second space-time with a speed of light c’ > c. The introduction of a second space-time with speed a speed of light that is larger than our space-time is the only way that an energetically reasonable FTL propulsion system can be contemplated. By using a 2nd space-time FTL propulsion system, wormholes, curvature of space, black holes, naked singularities and vast amounts of energy are all unnecessary. The biggest challenge is the detection of a second space-time, and subsequent development of an interface with it.


Consider two rockets, each with mass m=1000 metric tons = 106kg. In each case, 5kg of fuel will be converted into energy, with 100% efficiency, to be used to accelerate the rocket. The first rocket will travel in regular space, c-space. The second rocket has FTL capability. Its thrust will be transduced into hyperspace which has a speed of light c’ = 100c. Calculate for each case: a) energy content of the fuel burned, b) kinetic energy of the rocket, c) kinetic energy of the final velocity, b) the acceleration in g’s for a fuel burning that lasts 10 seconds.

First rocket:

a) 5kg of rocket fuel is converted into E=mc2 = 5kg*(3x108m/s)2 = 4.5x1017 joules.

b) Kinetic energy of the rocket is KE = ½ mv2=4.5x1017 joules.

c) Final velocity is v2=KE/m=4.5x1017 joules/106kg=45x1010m2/s2. The velocity is v=6.7x105m/s.

d) The velocity v=at, so a = v/t = (6.7x105m/s)/10sec=67000m/s2=6700g’s.

Second rocket, the FTL rocket:

a) Same as the first rocket, E=4.5x1017 joules.

b) Also the same as the first rocket, KE = ½ mv2=4.5x1017 joules.

c) The velocity of v=6.7x105m/s has to be translated into hyperspace. So v’ = v*c’/c = 6.7x105m/s * 100 = 6.7x107m/s.

Friday, September 25, 2009


Particle-Space is the relationship that particles have with space. In a typcial physics class, you will talk about quantum particles such as electrons and protons. We are lead to believe that there is nothing smaller than a quantum particle, other than perhaps a superstring. Particles are generally described by quantum mechanics. Space, for all we know, is nothingness itself. If you think of space as a nothingness, then it is a nothingness that enforces the speed of light and scales quantum mechanics by a Planck constant. General Relativity tells us about gravity, curvature of space and black holes. The totality of everything is contained within the universe. The universe is said to have expanded from a

Thursday, September 24, 2009

The Secrets of the Einstein Equations

The Einstein equations represent a mind boggling ten equation tensor that interrelates curvature of space, Newtonian gravity, General Relativity and the energy-stress tensor.  If there was a symbol that described the daunting task of creating a hyperdrive, it would be this equation.  It appeared in both movies, The Day the Earth Stood Still.  What was daunting to the human mind was just a puzzle to the advanced aliens.

With hints from mysterious places of my mind, I began to see what the equations meant.  On the left side, there were all of the terms that described curvature.  On the right side, there was the energy-stress tensor multiplied or scaled by 1/c^4.  Let me put this in layperson's terms.  Think of the energy-stress tensor as money.  It is the money you have to pay for the curvature you want.  Similarly, it is the money you will have to pay if you have curvature.  If I move the 1/c^4 to the left side, I discover that, for the curvature I want, the speed of light drives up the energy-stress by c^4.   Now, imagine that someone hands you a tiny ball.  They tell you that this ball is  universe that is tightly rolled up; it has a speed of light of c, and it's going to overcome the superforce that keeps it small, in about ten seconds.  Then, this person vanishes to a safe place, leaving you with a universe in your hand that is about to go Big Bang in ten seconds.   After about 7 seconds of cursing about your hard life, and how its about to be cut short by a universe that is going to explode in 3 seconds, you get to experience first hand (no pun intended), the meaning of curvature as it relates to space.  3...2...1...Oh Crap!!!  In a blinding flash of light, you realize that curvature is the opposite of flatness.  For  a tiny exploding universe that is destined to become platonically flat, it took an incomprehensible amount of energy to squeeze it down into a tiny ball that would fit inside of your hand.  In fact, one of the terms of the Einstein equations is R, which represents the radius of the ball.  When the ball escaped its Superforce bonds, the stress-energy could easily be mistaken for an infinite amount of energy.  That energy is going to escape in the fastest and easiest way that it can.  In my opinion, for the first few femtoseconds, the quickest and easiest way to expend energy was to burn higher dimensional physics into the tiny universe itself.  I say this for two reason.  First, energy will expand faster if it has more dimensions to do it in.  Second, quantum mechanics itself can be describes as 52(???) platonically flat dimensions of Minowski space.  But the etching of these 52 dimensions only lasted briefly, long enough to etch a Planck constant, h = 6.6e-34J-s into the fabric of space-time itself.  If the speed of light had been larger, there would have been more energy put into etching the Planck constant, and it would have been larger.  For the first few fempt seconds, the Planck constant of the brane absorbs the incredibly intense energy caused by the near infinite curvature. For universes that formed in a similar way with much larger speeds of light, the Planck constant is larger. The Planck constant is a familiar QM constant. For a frequency of light, f, the photon of that light will carry an energy packet of E=hf. The speed of light helps to determine the relationship between distance and time for a particular universe. The speed of light, c = wavelength * frequency. The wavelength establishes relative separation. The frequency establshishes relative time. Quantum Mechanics can be described mathematically as a Minowski 52 flat dimensional field. The scale of its effect is determined by the Planck constant. For a universe with a Plance constant of 10^6, the quantum universe would be visual to us. Space and momentum would be intermixed; as would energy and time. The various hyperspaces permit this interesting property. This is what allows the particle-space concept.

Friday, September 11, 2009

M-Theory Development of HD(hyperdrive)-Technology

HD-Tech or hyperdrive technology is built around a handful of concepts. First, the Big Bang is treated as a 3D wavefront on a 4D explosion. Within a four dimensional space-time, there is a thin dimension along the forth spatial dimension that we call "the present".  From that, we transition to the idea of a spherical balloon where the rubber surface represents our three dimensional universe. The 4th dimension would be the pathway through the interior of the balloon. This is consistent with space-time in the sense that the thickness of the rubber part of the balloon represents the causally enforced present, described as a thickness in a 4 dimensional universe called space-time. In this model, time travel is impossible because it violates causality. The benefit of restricting time travel allows us to consider the 4th dimension, off of the p3-brane (our universe), as a hyperspace that we can work with. In a way, we want to build rubber structures that extend inside and outside of the balloon.
Second, we want to work with concepts in String Theory and M-Theory. Atoms are made of protons, neutrons and electrons. Each of those quantum particles, as well as others, can be described as manifestations of a vibrating superstring, like a violin string. String theory states that fundamental quantum particles can be described as 10D open superstrings called fermions. Bosons are closed superstrings, like rubber bands, that implement forces and vibrate in 26 dimensions. Don't worry about the number of dimensions right now. M-theory can be called membrane theory. The idea of membrane theory is that these open ended supstrings, fermions, will want to connect to the surface of a membrane. Membranes can be referred to a p-branes or d-branes; p refers to space with an odd number of dimensions; d refers to a space with an even number of dimensions. Our universe has a three dimensional space so it is referred to as a p3-brane. This p3-brane is represented as the 2D surface of the rubber balloon. Superstrings would stick to its surface and become our quantum particles. Arguably, a balloon as a D2-brane, but we're just trying to clarify these concepts. One could also say that the p3-brane coincides with empty space. The superstrings that stick to it are just the quantum particles that exist in our space.

In the balloon example, the air inside of the balloon will correspond to the Cosmological constant. Albert Einstein proposed this constant as a way to make the universe static. It was later discovered that the universe was expanding, so the universal wasn't necessary. However, that same constant can be used to moderate the expansion or contraction of the universe. By extrapolation, the following is being added. The Cosmolgical pressure is a hyperdimensional superfluid, an aether that exerts pressure against the p3-brane and causes it to expand; the exact mechanism is unknown at this time. The superfluid appears to spontaneously emerge from within the p3-brane. The pressure that it exerts causes the fluid to pass through the p3-brane to the outside of the brane. The difference in pressure will manifest as energy density in that region of space.

The idea of a "particle-space" relationship comes in handy in hyperdim physics. Basically, a particle is subject to the laws of physics and forces within the space that it occupies. In turn, a region of space can be described as a particle within a higher dimensional space.

A particle-space allows us to describe the laws of motion of a local space within a higher dimensional space. For example, in a spaceship with FTL (faster than light) capability, the very space around the spacecraft is artificial and fabricated. The spaceship, as it accelerates, will appear to vanish from our universe. It has slipped into an isolated space of its own. That space acts like a particle within a higher dimensional space, in which the laws of motion allow faster than light travel.

Thursday, September 3, 2009

Hyper-drive physics

Ultimately, the Hyper-drive will eventually
Be Possible

In the pursuit of a hyper drive technology, General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics are incredibly stubborn to work with. With a “nothing is impossible” attitude and copious amounts of creativity, a simple truth has emerged: If you can’t get through GR barrier, then go around it.

Start here:
The common, and probably correct, belief in the physics community is that nothing can travel faster than light. If so, then the obvious question would be: why does gravity operate in and around black holes? One’s first instinct is to think that Newtonian gravity must rely upon a force that travels significantly faster than light. But that is wrong. From the simple formula, F=ma, we discover that gravity is more of an acceleration field. Rocks, feathers and photons all fall in a gravity field without consideration of their mass. Hence, gravity is not a force; it is a curvature in space.

Next step:
If the curvature of space makes everything in it accelerate, then why can’t we curve space the way we want, to create wormholes and warp drives? The unhappy answer lies in the Alcubierre drive. General Relativity states that we are welcome to curve space anyway we like, but the energy cost will require multiples of all of the energy in the universe.

Figure 1: Come back when you have more energy.
Now what?
We can pretty much rule out attempts to curve space using mass-energy. We know that gravity occurs via the curvature of space. Do we know what space is? Superstring theory and M-theory have deal with n-dimension p/d-branes (short for membranes). As mathematical descriptions, they give us the best insight we have available into what we must do next.

What is our universe?
There are many reasons to believe that our physical universe is a wave front or surface on the edge of a four dimensional Big Bang explosion. To better illustrate this idea, imagine a spherical balloon. The rubber surface is a 2D representation of the universe; this surface can also represent a brane to which the superstrings can attach to give us our observable quantum particles. Our physical universe is a p3-brane.

The internal gas pressure of the balloon is the equivalent of the Cosmological pressure that can be considered a four dimensional gas. The direction of the pressure pushes the brane outwards in a 4th spatial dimension. That 4th spatial dimension is typically referred to as ct; this model explains what is meant by space-time. In this model, the membrane moves through the fourth dimension of time, but does not allow time travel because there is only one p3-brane that changes in time. In fact, it is the flow of the Cosmological 4D gas that causes time to flow at all. If the universe were to contract, the cosmological gas would flow in the other direction, but the universe would not revert to the historic past. The future would continue to unfold the way it does not. The flow of Cosmological gas only governs the rate that time passes. True time travel would require a model more like a movie reel.

The important idea to take from this is that the flow of the 4D cosmological gas through the brane is responsible for the rate at which time flows. The fact that gravitationally relevant objects like planets, stars and black holes warp space is due to the interaction between mass-density, and the continued inflation of the universe. For a cubic volume of space, the cosmological gas has to inflate it. But if there is significant mass-density, the flow of 4D cosmological gas has to account for, process, every unit of mass and energy in order to move it along the time (4D) axis. When a black hole falls behind, it causes the space around it to warp. Inflation of the universe continues today.

For this reason, it may be possible to manipulate the flow of gravity by manipulating the p3-brane in a way that controls the flow of the 4D Cosmological gas through it.

From this model, we can see that the speed of light, c, the gravitational constant of the universe, G and … represent properties of the p3-brane, but the Cosmological constant represents properties outside of the brane.

We can’t really manipulate p-branes until we can prove their existence. The Physics Community has a homework assignment. Create a method, the technology, and the equipment necessary to detect, manipulate and create p3 branes. You have 200 years to do this. Explain how the technology will work…

There is a place for spheres in physics. I am trying to figure out the nature of the p3-brane of which our universe is constructed. I liked Georgina's idea of a potential energy from the fourth temporal dimension pushing the p3-brane forward in time. I believe that the Cosmological constant might serve as a constant pressure that continually inflates our universe.

I believe that the Schwartzchild spheres, while just a mathematical convenience right now, could be imagined to be a 3D slice of a 4D hyper sphere. The idea is that the p3-brane is only one Schwartzchild diameter thick (4D thickness). Think of bubble wrap. The idea is that the Cosmological pressure inflates these spheres from their unseen (off the brane) exposed surface.

The 4D cosmological gas flows through the spheres, from the 4th dimensional past to the 4th dimensional future (no time travel allowed). Some of this flow will be necessary to keep the Schwartzchild sphere inflated. If the sphere to deal with a high energy density, then it comes at the expense of the degree of inflation.

For a black hole, a large number of Schwarchchilde spheres will have their volumes collapsed into singularities by the huge mass-density. Beyond the black hole, the space around the black hole has a much lower mass-energy, but experiences huge gravitational forces. But why?

A 4D Schwartchilde hypersphere has three dimensions of space and 1 dimension of 4th dimensional space along the temporal dimension (ct). Just like bubble wrap, it takes a certain amount of presure (energy) to squeeze one of these spheres. This gives it a potential energy profile that is proportional to its 4th dimensional radius. If a black hole contracts the space around it, and the spheres within it, then the surounding spheres have to stretch to take up that missing space. In doing so, their potential energy profile is distorted. The distortion should cause the potential energy to slope downwards towards the center of the contraction, the black hole. Anything that exists on the p3-brane near the black hole will, of course, experience the slope in the potential energy. In the bubble wrap example, image two halves of a sphere, one half is closer to the black hole hole then the other half. The contraction of space forces the part of the sphere closest to the black hole to make up for the contraction of space by expanding more than the side of the sphere further away from the black hole. Larger volume means less pressure. There will be a continual drop in sphere pressure as you get close to the black hole. That corresponds to a continual drop in potential energy. The gradient of that creates a force pointing to the black hole.

In a nutshell, any creative manipulation of space time, for the purpose of creating wormholes or hyperdrives, will have to get around the Schwartzchilde inflation problem. It might be necessary to deflate the spheres first, bend them around the way you want, and then let the Cosmological constant refill them. In this way, the Cosmological constant may be more fundamental then even conservation of energy.

Hyperspace, in the past

P3-Brane Construction Rules
Cosmological 4D gas inflates spheres to a potential energy V0 and a Radius R0.
The surface of a 4D hypersphere is a 3D space subject to General Relativity.
The sphere’s 3D surface is the ZPE floor. The inside of the 3D surface is negative energy, the outside is positive energy.
Expanded Schwartzchild spheres are called Inflatons.
A particle-space relationship occurs between an n-dimensional object within an m-dimensional space where m > n.

Monday, March 9, 2009

Superluminal Field Details, Part II

The aliens figure you probably thought of this idea already. But implementation without their help is impossible. So here is the big secret to interstellar travel. There is an FTL highway system that you don’t know exists. The gateways are hidden inside our sun and around the suns of other rim world systems. There are also intergalactic highway systems that are built within the dark matter distribution network. There are alien races that have been traveling among the stars since before life sprang up on the earth.

You’re superluminal ellipsoid shield will have to be operating properly to avoid being incinerated when you enter the sun’s corona. You will also have to be traveling at about .05c. When passing into the sun’s corona, some travelers open up a narrow band of visible light to watch the sun as they approach. This joke is old now; but usually, if you have FTL newbie’s along, they will be watching nervously as they rapidly approach the sun. Someone is supposed to scream, “Oh, crap! The computer crashed!!!” or “Why isn’t this stupid shell working!!!” After billions of years of FTL travel, somehow, the joke is still funny.

But it won’t be funny for long if you don’t know the password. When you enter the sun’s corona (or where ever they put the gate), you have to find it and then transmit a password into the superluminal shell. The effect of the intense heat acts like noise at the Planck scale. When you do this correctly, you enter the gate area and emit the password, all while traveling at 15,000 Km/sec along a zone of about 2 km in length. That gives you about 133 milliseconds to either open the gate and enter hyperspace, or get the hell out of there before your ellipsoid shell starts to act funny. You hope that the gate orientation provides a path tangent along the sun’s surface. Sometimes, the gate will rotate, and the exiting end is facing the sun’s core. You have to report this to the Gate Keepers so they can fix it. But if you don’t have the right password and the gate’s exit is oriented towards the sun’s core, here’s what happens.

High thermal energy causes lots of noise on the elliptical shell which can randomize some of the quantum bits, effectively smearing out some of their signalling to the adjacent space-time. This causes the superluminal space-time thickness to narrow to zero. Then, if you haven’t gotten out of the sun by then, you have a choice. The sun’s diameter is 1.4 million kilometers. If you can quickly reconfigure the shell to convert thermal energy into velocity, the temperature is only 6000K at the surface. Towards the center, it’s about a million degrees. Wait a minute, why would they put a jump gate inside of the sun? The greys are looking at each other and saying something about it being a bad neighborhood. I’m not sure I get what they’re saying. One of them just said they call it the Ronald Reagan Solar Gate (

The aliens are saying that someday, when humanity evolves out of its barbaric, hateful and paranoid disposition, the Gate Keepers will consider changing the solar gate’s name and moving it into an orbit around the sun. They also express great confidence that this will happen before the sun uses up all of its hydrogen fuel and expands into a Red Giant in about 5 billion years ( That gives us plenty of time to practice being nice to each other.