Friday, September 25, 2009


Particle-Space is the relationship that particles have with space. In a typcial physics class, you will talk about quantum particles such as electrons and protons. We are lead to believe that there is nothing smaller than a quantum particle, other than perhaps a superstring. Particles are generally described by quantum mechanics. Space, for all we know, is nothingness itself. If you think of space as a nothingness, then it is a nothingness that enforces the speed of light and scales quantum mechanics by a Planck constant. General Relativity tells us about gravity, curvature of space and black holes. The totality of everything is contained within the universe. The universe is said to have expanded from a

Thursday, September 24, 2009

The Secrets of the Einstein Equations

The Einstein equations represent a mind boggling ten equation tensor that interrelates curvature of space, Newtonian gravity, General Relativity and the energy-stress tensor.  If there was a symbol that described the daunting task of creating a hyperdrive, it would be this equation.  It appeared in both movies, The Day the Earth Stood Still.  What was daunting to the human mind was just a puzzle to the advanced aliens.

With hints from mysterious places of my mind, I began to see what the equations meant.  On the left side, there were all of the terms that described curvature.  On the right side, there was the energy-stress tensor multiplied or scaled by 1/c^4.  Let me put this in layperson's terms.  Think of the energy-stress tensor as money.  It is the money you have to pay for the curvature you want.  Similarly, it is the money you will have to pay if you have curvature.  If I move the 1/c^4 to the left side, I discover that, for the curvature I want, the speed of light drives up the energy-stress by c^4.   Now, imagine that someone hands you a tiny ball.  They tell you that this ball is  universe that is tightly rolled up; it has a speed of light of c, and it's going to overcome the superforce that keeps it small, in about ten seconds.  Then, this person vanishes to a safe place, leaving you with a universe in your hand that is about to go Big Bang in ten seconds.   After about 7 seconds of cursing about your hard life, and how its about to be cut short by a universe that is going to explode in 3 seconds, you get to experience first hand (no pun intended), the meaning of curvature as it relates to space.  3...2...1...Oh Crap!!!  In a blinding flash of light, you realize that curvature is the opposite of flatness.  For  a tiny exploding universe that is destined to become platonically flat, it took an incomprehensible amount of energy to squeeze it down into a tiny ball that would fit inside of your hand.  In fact, one of the terms of the Einstein equations is R, which represents the radius of the ball.  When the ball escaped its Superforce bonds, the stress-energy could easily be mistaken for an infinite amount of energy.  That energy is going to escape in the fastest and easiest way that it can.  In my opinion, for the first few femtoseconds, the quickest and easiest way to expend energy was to burn higher dimensional physics into the tiny universe itself.  I say this for two reason.  First, energy will expand faster if it has more dimensions to do it in.  Second, quantum mechanics itself can be describes as 52(???) platonically flat dimensions of Minowski space.  But the etching of these 52 dimensions only lasted briefly, long enough to etch a Planck constant, h = 6.6e-34J-s into the fabric of space-time itself.  If the speed of light had been larger, there would have been more energy put into etching the Planck constant, and it would have been larger.  For the first few fempt seconds, the Planck constant of the brane absorbs the incredibly intense energy caused by the near infinite curvature. For universes that formed in a similar way with much larger speeds of light, the Planck constant is larger. The Planck constant is a familiar QM constant. For a frequency of light, f, the photon of that light will carry an energy packet of E=hf. The speed of light helps to determine the relationship between distance and time for a particular universe. The speed of light, c = wavelength * frequency. The wavelength establishes relative separation. The frequency establshishes relative time. Quantum Mechanics can be described mathematically as a Minowski 52 flat dimensional field. The scale of its effect is determined by the Planck constant. For a universe with a Plance constant of 10^6, the quantum universe would be visual to us. Space and momentum would be intermixed; as would energy and time. The various hyperspaces permit this interesting property. This is what allows the particle-space concept.

Friday, September 11, 2009

M-Theory Development of HD(hyperdrive)-Technology

HD-Tech or hyperdrive technology is built around a handful of concepts. First, the Big Bang is treated as a 3D wavefront on a 4D explosion. Within a four dimensional space-time, there is a thin dimension along the forth spatial dimension that we call "the present".  From that, we transition to the idea of a spherical balloon where the rubber surface represents our three dimensional universe. The 4th dimension would be the pathway through the interior of the balloon. This is consistent with space-time in the sense that the thickness of the rubber part of the balloon represents the causally enforced present, described as a thickness in a 4 dimensional universe called space-time. In this model, time travel is impossible because it violates causality. The benefit of restricting time travel allows us to consider the 4th dimension, off of the p3-brane (our universe), as a hyperspace that we can work with. In a way, we want to build rubber structures that extend inside and outside of the balloon.
Second, we want to work with concepts in String Theory and M-Theory. Atoms are made of protons, neutrons and electrons. Each of those quantum particles, as well as others, can be described as manifestations of a vibrating superstring, like a violin string. String theory states that fundamental quantum particles can be described as 10D open superstrings called fermions. Bosons are closed superstrings, like rubber bands, that implement forces and vibrate in 26 dimensions. Don't worry about the number of dimensions right now. M-theory can be called membrane theory. The idea of membrane theory is that these open ended supstrings, fermions, will want to connect to the surface of a membrane. Membranes can be referred to a p-branes or d-branes; p refers to space with an odd number of dimensions; d refers to a space with an even number of dimensions. Our universe has a three dimensional space so it is referred to as a p3-brane. This p3-brane is represented as the 2D surface of the rubber balloon. Superstrings would stick to its surface and become our quantum particles. Arguably, a balloon as a D2-brane, but we're just trying to clarify these concepts. One could also say that the p3-brane coincides with empty space. The superstrings that stick to it are just the quantum particles that exist in our space.

In the balloon example, the air inside of the balloon will correspond to the Cosmological constant. Albert Einstein proposed this constant as a way to make the universe static. It was later discovered that the universe was expanding, so the universal wasn't necessary. However, that same constant can be used to moderate the expansion or contraction of the universe. By extrapolation, the following is being added. The Cosmolgical pressure is a hyperdimensional superfluid, an aether that exerts pressure against the p3-brane and causes it to expand; the exact mechanism is unknown at this time. The superfluid appears to spontaneously emerge from within the p3-brane. The pressure that it exerts causes the fluid to pass through the p3-brane to the outside of the brane. The difference in pressure will manifest as energy density in that region of space.

The idea of a "particle-space" relationship comes in handy in hyperdim physics. Basically, a particle is subject to the laws of physics and forces within the space that it occupies. In turn, a region of space can be described as a particle within a higher dimensional space.

A particle-space allows us to describe the laws of motion of a local space within a higher dimensional space. For example, in a spaceship with FTL (faster than light) capability, the very space around the spacecraft is artificial and fabricated. The spaceship, as it accelerates, will appear to vanish from our universe. It has slipped into an isolated space of its own. That space acts like a particle within a higher dimensional space, in which the laws of motion allow faster than light travel.

Thursday, September 3, 2009

Hyper-drive physics

Ultimately, the Hyper-drive will eventually
Be Possible

In the pursuit of a hyper drive technology, General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics are incredibly stubborn to work with. With a “nothing is impossible” attitude and copious amounts of creativity, a simple truth has emerged: If you can’t get through GR barrier, then go around it.

Start here:
The common, and probably correct, belief in the physics community is that nothing can travel faster than light. If so, then the obvious question would be: why does gravity operate in and around black holes? One’s first instinct is to think that Newtonian gravity must rely upon a force that travels significantly faster than light. But that is wrong. From the simple formula, F=ma, we discover that gravity is more of an acceleration field. Rocks, feathers and photons all fall in a gravity field without consideration of their mass. Hence, gravity is not a force; it is a curvature in space.

Next step:
If the curvature of space makes everything in it accelerate, then why can’t we curve space the way we want, to create wormholes and warp drives? The unhappy answer lies in the Alcubierre drive. General Relativity states that we are welcome to curve space anyway we like, but the energy cost will require multiples of all of the energy in the universe.

Figure 1: Come back when you have more energy.
Now what?
We can pretty much rule out attempts to curve space using mass-energy. We know that gravity occurs via the curvature of space. Do we know what space is? Superstring theory and M-theory have deal with n-dimension p/d-branes (short for membranes). As mathematical descriptions, they give us the best insight we have available into what we must do next.

What is our universe?
There are many reasons to believe that our physical universe is a wave front or surface on the edge of a four dimensional Big Bang explosion. To better illustrate this idea, imagine a spherical balloon. The rubber surface is a 2D representation of the universe; this surface can also represent a brane to which the superstrings can attach to give us our observable quantum particles. Our physical universe is a p3-brane.

The internal gas pressure of the balloon is the equivalent of the Cosmological pressure that can be considered a four dimensional gas. The direction of the pressure pushes the brane outwards in a 4th spatial dimension. That 4th spatial dimension is typically referred to as ct; this model explains what is meant by space-time. In this model, the membrane moves through the fourth dimension of time, but does not allow time travel because there is only one p3-brane that changes in time. In fact, it is the flow of the Cosmological 4D gas that causes time to flow at all. If the universe were to contract, the cosmological gas would flow in the other direction, but the universe would not revert to the historic past. The future would continue to unfold the way it does not. The flow of Cosmological gas only governs the rate that time passes. True time travel would require a model more like a movie reel.

The important idea to take from this is that the flow of the 4D cosmological gas through the brane is responsible for the rate at which time flows. The fact that gravitationally relevant objects like planets, stars and black holes warp space is due to the interaction between mass-density, and the continued inflation of the universe. For a cubic volume of space, the cosmological gas has to inflate it. But if there is significant mass-density, the flow of 4D cosmological gas has to account for, process, every unit of mass and energy in order to move it along the time (4D) axis. When a black hole falls behind, it causes the space around it to warp. Inflation of the universe continues today.

For this reason, it may be possible to manipulate the flow of gravity by manipulating the p3-brane in a way that controls the flow of the 4D Cosmological gas through it.

From this model, we can see that the speed of light, c, the gravitational constant of the universe, G and … represent properties of the p3-brane, but the Cosmological constant represents properties outside of the brane.

We can’t really manipulate p-branes until we can prove their existence. The Physics Community has a homework assignment. Create a method, the technology, and the equipment necessary to detect, manipulate and create p3 branes. You have 200 years to do this. Explain how the technology will work…

There is a place for spheres in physics. I am trying to figure out the nature of the p3-brane of which our universe is constructed. I liked Georgina's idea of a potential energy from the fourth temporal dimension pushing the p3-brane forward in time. I believe that the Cosmological constant might serve as a constant pressure that continually inflates our universe.

I believe that the Schwartzchild spheres, while just a mathematical convenience right now, could be imagined to be a 3D slice of a 4D hyper sphere. The idea is that the p3-brane is only one Schwartzchild diameter thick (4D thickness). Think of bubble wrap. The idea is that the Cosmological pressure inflates these spheres from their unseen (off the brane) exposed surface.

The 4D cosmological gas flows through the spheres, from the 4th dimensional past to the 4th dimensional future (no time travel allowed). Some of this flow will be necessary to keep the Schwartzchild sphere inflated. If the sphere to deal with a high energy density, then it comes at the expense of the degree of inflation.

For a black hole, a large number of Schwarchchilde spheres will have their volumes collapsed into singularities by the huge mass-density. Beyond the black hole, the space around the black hole has a much lower mass-energy, but experiences huge gravitational forces. But why?

A 4D Schwartchilde hypersphere has three dimensions of space and 1 dimension of 4th dimensional space along the temporal dimension (ct). Just like bubble wrap, it takes a certain amount of presure (energy) to squeeze one of these spheres. This gives it a potential energy profile that is proportional to its 4th dimensional radius. If a black hole contracts the space around it, and the spheres within it, then the surounding spheres have to stretch to take up that missing space. In doing so, their potential energy profile is distorted. The distortion should cause the potential energy to slope downwards towards the center of the contraction, the black hole. Anything that exists on the p3-brane near the black hole will, of course, experience the slope in the potential energy. In the bubble wrap example, image two halves of a sphere, one half is closer to the black hole hole then the other half. The contraction of space forces the part of the sphere closest to the black hole to make up for the contraction of space by expanding more than the side of the sphere further away from the black hole. Larger volume means less pressure. There will be a continual drop in sphere pressure as you get close to the black hole. That corresponds to a continual drop in potential energy. The gradient of that creates a force pointing to the black hole.

In a nutshell, any creative manipulation of space time, for the purpose of creating wormholes or hyperdrives, will have to get around the Schwartzchilde inflation problem. It might be necessary to deflate the spheres first, bend them around the way you want, and then let the Cosmological constant refill them. In this way, the Cosmological constant may be more fundamental then even conservation of energy.

Hyperspace, in the past

P3-Brane Construction Rules
Cosmological 4D gas inflates spheres to a potential energy V0 and a Radius R0.
The surface of a 4D hypersphere is a 3D space subject to General Relativity.
The sphere’s 3D surface is the ZPE floor. The inside of the 3D surface is negative energy, the outside is positive energy.
Expanded Schwartzchild spheres are called Inflatons.
A particle-space relationship occurs between an n-dimensional object within an m-dimensional space where m > n.