Thursday, September 3, 2009

Hyper-drive physics

Ultimately, the Hyper-drive will eventually
Be Possible

In the pursuit of a hyper drive technology, General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics are incredibly stubborn to work with. With a “nothing is impossible” attitude and copious amounts of creativity, a simple truth has emerged: If you can’t get through GR barrier, then go around it.

Start here:
The common, and probably correct, belief in the physics community is that nothing can travel faster than light. If so, then the obvious question would be: why does gravity operate in and around black holes? One’s first instinct is to think that Newtonian gravity must rely upon a force that travels significantly faster than light. But that is wrong. From the simple formula, F=ma, we discover that gravity is more of an acceleration field. Rocks, feathers and photons all fall in a gravity field without consideration of their mass. Hence, gravity is not a force; it is a curvature in space.

Next step:
If the curvature of space makes everything in it accelerate, then why can’t we curve space the way we want, to create wormholes and warp drives? The unhappy answer lies in the Alcubierre drive. General Relativity states that we are welcome to curve space anyway we like, but the energy cost will require multiples of all of the energy in the universe.

Figure 1: Come back when you have more energy.
Now what?
We can pretty much rule out attempts to curve space using mass-energy. We know that gravity occurs via the curvature of space. Do we know what space is? Superstring theory and M-theory have deal with n-dimension p/d-branes (short for membranes). As mathematical descriptions, they give us the best insight we have available into what we must do next.

What is our universe?
There are many reasons to believe that our physical universe is a wave front or surface on the edge of a four dimensional Big Bang explosion. To better illustrate this idea, imagine a spherical balloon. The rubber surface is a 2D representation of the universe; this surface can also represent a brane to which the superstrings can attach to give us our observable quantum particles. Our physical universe is a p3-brane.

The internal gas pressure of the balloon is the equivalent of the Cosmological pressure that can be considered a four dimensional gas. The direction of the pressure pushes the brane outwards in a 4th spatial dimension. That 4th spatial dimension is typically referred to as ct; this model explains what is meant by space-time. In this model, the membrane moves through the fourth dimension of time, but does not allow time travel because there is only one p3-brane that changes in time. In fact, it is the flow of the Cosmological 4D gas that causes time to flow at all. If the universe were to contract, the cosmological gas would flow in the other direction, but the universe would not revert to the historic past. The future would continue to unfold the way it does not. The flow of Cosmological gas only governs the rate that time passes. True time travel would require a model more like a movie reel.

The important idea to take from this is that the flow of the 4D cosmological gas through the brane is responsible for the rate at which time flows. The fact that gravitationally relevant objects like planets, stars and black holes warp space is due to the interaction between mass-density, and the continued inflation of the universe. For a cubic volume of space, the cosmological gas has to inflate it. But if there is significant mass-density, the flow of 4D cosmological gas has to account for, process, every unit of mass and energy in order to move it along the time (4D) axis. When a black hole falls behind, it causes the space around it to warp. Inflation of the universe continues today.

For this reason, it may be possible to manipulate the flow of gravity by manipulating the p3-brane in a way that controls the flow of the 4D Cosmological gas through it.

From this model, we can see that the speed of light, c, the gravitational constant of the universe, G and … represent properties of the p3-brane, but the Cosmological constant represents properties outside of the brane.

We can’t really manipulate p-branes until we can prove their existence. The Physics Community has a homework assignment. Create a method, the technology, and the equipment necessary to detect, manipulate and create p3 branes. You have 200 years to do this. Explain how the technology will work…

There is a place for spheres in physics. I am trying to figure out the nature of the p3-brane of which our universe is constructed. I liked Georgina's idea of a potential energy from the fourth temporal dimension pushing the p3-brane forward in time. I believe that the Cosmological constant might serve as a constant pressure that continually inflates our universe.

I believe that the Schwartzchild spheres, while just a mathematical convenience right now, could be imagined to be a 3D slice of a 4D hyper sphere. The idea is that the p3-brane is only one Schwartzchild diameter thick (4D thickness). Think of bubble wrap. The idea is that the Cosmological pressure inflates these spheres from their unseen (off the brane) exposed surface.

The 4D cosmological gas flows through the spheres, from the 4th dimensional past to the 4th dimensional future (no time travel allowed). Some of this flow will be necessary to keep the Schwartzchild sphere inflated. If the sphere to deal with a high energy density, then it comes at the expense of the degree of inflation.

For a black hole, a large number of Schwarchchilde spheres will have their volumes collapsed into singularities by the huge mass-density. Beyond the black hole, the space around the black hole has a much lower mass-energy, but experiences huge gravitational forces. But why?

A 4D Schwartchilde hypersphere has three dimensions of space and 1 dimension of 4th dimensional space along the temporal dimension (ct). Just like bubble wrap, it takes a certain amount of presure (energy) to squeeze one of these spheres. This gives it a potential energy profile that is proportional to its 4th dimensional radius. If a black hole contracts the space around it, and the spheres within it, then the surounding spheres have to stretch to take up that missing space. In doing so, their potential energy profile is distorted. The distortion should cause the potential energy to slope downwards towards the center of the contraction, the black hole. Anything that exists on the p3-brane near the black hole will, of course, experience the slope in the potential energy. In the bubble wrap example, image two halves of a sphere, one half is closer to the black hole hole then the other half. The contraction of space forces the part of the sphere closest to the black hole to make up for the contraction of space by expanding more than the side of the sphere further away from the black hole. Larger volume means less pressure. There will be a continual drop in sphere pressure as you get close to the black hole. That corresponds to a continual drop in potential energy. The gradient of that creates a force pointing to the black hole.

In a nutshell, any creative manipulation of space time, for the purpose of creating wormholes or hyperdrives, will have to get around the Schwartzchilde inflation problem. It might be necessary to deflate the spheres first, bend them around the way you want, and then let the Cosmological constant refill them. In this way, the Cosmological constant may be more fundamental then even conservation of energy.

Hyperspace, in the past

P3-Brane Construction Rules
Cosmological 4D gas inflates spheres to a potential energy V0 and a Radius R0.
The surface of a 4D hypersphere is a 3D space subject to General Relativity.
The sphere’s 3D surface is the ZPE floor. The inside of the 3D surface is negative energy, the outside is positive energy.
Expanded Schwartzchild spheres are called Inflatons.
A particle-space relationship occurs between an n-dimensional object within an m-dimensional space where m > n.

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